Japanese Language Grammar Potential Form

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Japanese Language Grammar Potential Form

Japanese Grammar Pattern        : 可能形「かのう けい」Potential Form

Translation                                        :

1. can + do + verb
2. could + do + verb
3. capable of + doing + verb
4. be able of + doing + verb
5. any other translations which is describing the potential of doing activity specifically represented on the verb, potentiality to do the verb.

It is one of the Japanese grammar pattern which is telling the way to make a pattern to express the ability or the possibility to do something. There are certain way to do so by several types of form as shown below :

  1. Altering the verb which is in dictionary form into a verb which is classified as a potential form.

There are three categories of verb in their dictionary form which can be altered into their potential form. These are their categories respectively :

1. The regular verb

The regular verb can actually be called as ‘kisoku doushi’「規則動詞|きそくどうし」if we recall the other type, the irregular verb is called ‘fukisoku doushi’.「不 規則動詞|ふきそくどうし」.  But the important thing about the classification itself which is the regular verb can be divided into two categories as follows :

1.1. Ichidan doushi (One stage verb)

Basically verbs which fall on this category are generally verbs end with ‘ru’. Any other verbs which end with ‘ru’ but it is proceeded with the vocal syllables ‘i’ or ‘e’ so it will end as ‘iru’ or ‘eru’ can also be classified into this category.

一段 動詞      「いちだん どうし」[ichidan doushi]
Kanji : 動詞 られる
Hiragana : どうし られる
Romaji : doushi ru rareru

                Rules :

To be able to convert an ichidan doushi into its potential form, replace the ending ‘ru’ with ‘rareru’.

                For an example : 食べる「たべる」

動詞 「いちだん どうし」[ichidan doushi]
Kanji : 食べ rareru
Hiragana : たべ rareru
Romaji : tabe Ru rareru
Final Form : 食べる「たべる」[taberu : to eat ]

                 Example in the form of sentence :

Kanji : 辛い食べ物が食べられます。
Hiragana : からいたべものがたべられます。
Romaji : karai tabemono ga taberaremasu.
Meaning : (I) can eat spicy food.

1.2. Godan doushi (Five stage verb)

Verbs which don’t even end with ‘ru’. But there are some exceptions where verbs end with ‘ru’ can be categorized into godan doushi and it fall on this category.

伍段 動詞      「ごだん どうし」[godan doushi]
Kanji : 動詞
Hiragana : どうし
Romaji : doushi u e ru
Meaning : verb u e ru

 Rules :

1. Replace any syllable ends with ‘u’ with ‘e’.

2.Follow the replaced ‘u’ syllable with ‘e’ in rule no.1 with ‘ru’.

For an example : 読む「よむ」

 動詞 「いちだん どうし」[ichidan doushi]
Kanji : 読む
Hiragana : よむ
Romaji : yomu u e ru
Final Form : 食べる「たべる」[taberu : to eat ]

Example in the form of sentence :

Kanji : この子が漢字が読めます。
Hiragana : このこがかんじがよめます。
Romaji : kono ko ga kanji ga yomemasu.
Meaning : this kid can read kanji.

2. Irregular Verb

On the contrary, there are irregular verb which don’t have any specific pattern because there are only two of them classified in this category. The irregular verb usually called as 不規則 動詞「ふきそく どうし」[‘fukisoku doushi’ ].  The verbs are する「 ‘suru’」 and くる「 ‘kuru’」.  Below are the patterns of those verbs in potential form :

2.1 kuru [to do]

する「suru」: to do
Kanji :
Hiragana : できる
Romaji : dekiru
Meaning : be able to do

        Example in a sentence :

する「suru」: to do
Kanji : 日本の料理を作ることができます。
Hiragana : にほんのりょうりをつくることができます。
Romaji : Nihon no ryouri wo tsukuru koto ga dekimasu.
Meaning : I can make a Japanese dishes (cooking).

2.2 kuru [to come]

くる「kuru」: to come
Kanji : 来られる
Hiragana : こられる
Romaji : korareru
Meaning : be able to come

 Example in a sentence :

くる「kuru」: to come
Kanji : 今までにも病気ですから明日の研修旅行が来られません。
Hiragana : いままでにもびょうきですからあしたのけんしゅうりょこうがこられません。
Romaji : ima made ni mo byouki desu kara ashita no kenshuu ryokou ga koraremasen.
Meaning :

because I am still sick until now, I cannot be able to come to tomorrow’s study tour

 

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