In order to ask someone or the person whom take part as an indirect object marker or subject whom being the indirect target of a verb or an activity. To be able to ask this kind of question we will use だれ and particle に(ni) to do it. The indirect object marker can also be defined as the target or destination of the verb action. Basically, we can translate it as “to whom”. We will give an example and also the pattern to be able to answer the question presented in Minna no Nihongo book chapter 7 practice B part five. As the previous article the question also given are in form of pictures of activity done describing someone done something to someone else. The activity which is done by the first person is given as part of the question. Below we will show you first the pattern :
Kanji : 誰 ＋に＋目的語 ＋を＋動詞
Hiragana : だれ ＋に＋もくてきご ＋を＋どうし
Romaji : dare ＋ni＋mokuteki ＋ wo ＋doushi
Meaning : to whom ＋ 「object」 ＋「wo」 ＋verb
Since the focus of this article is in the receiver stand point whom is going to be asked by using particle だれに, we will loot at certain verb which is used as to receive something from someone else.
くれる (to do something for, to do a favor for)
It is a verb which is used as a verb describing someone receiving something from someone else. It is a verb which is used from the stand point of someone who receive something (receiver). The receiver can be the speaker whom giving or stating the sentence and can also be the non-speaker as long as the non-speaker is in the receiver stand-point. くれるis focusing on the person who gives the effort to do something for the other person as the receiver since the meaning is to do something for or to do a favor for. We will using だれに (dare ni) to ask who is the person giving item to the receiver as follow :
The receiver is a speaker :
The example cannot be made because logically it is not possible asking someone whom receive a favor when the receiver is the one who speaks and ask the question or in this context is the first person whom is me.
The receiver is a non-speaker :
A : 君のお姉さんは誰にお弁当を作ってくれる
B : お姉さんは弟にお弁当を作ってくれる。
A : きみのおとうとはだれにおべんとうをつくってくれる
B : おねえさんはおとうとにおべんとうをつくってくれる。
A : Kimi no oneesan wa dare ni obentou wo tsukutte kureru ?
B : Oneesan wa otouto ni obentou wo tsukutte kureru.
A : For whom does your older sister (do the favor of) making the lunch box ?
B : My older sister (do the favor of) making the lunch box for my younger brother.
The focus is in the person who do something or giving something to someone or the receiver. In the above sentence ‘oneesan’ is the person which is becoming focus of the sentence as the person who do something or to do a favor for someone else whom is her younger brother by making him a lunch box.
もらう(to receive, to take, to accept)
It is also a verb which is used by the receiver like くれる from the stand point of someone who receives something from someone else. But it is focusing on the person who receive something from someone else since the meaning of もらうis to receive, to accept or to take.
The receiver is the speaker :
The example cannot be made because logically it is not possible asking someone who receive something when the receiver is actually the one who ask the question or in this context is the first person whom is me.
The receiver is the non-speaker :
A : 妹は誰にお金をもらいますか
B : 。。。妹はお祖父さんにお金をもらいます。
A : いもうとはだれにおかねをもらいますか
B : 。。。いもうとはおじいさんにおかねをもらいます。
A : Imouto wa dare ni okane wo moraimasuka ?
: Imouto wa dare kara okane wo moraimasuka ?
B : … imouto wa ojiisan ni okane wo moraimasu.
: … imouto wa ojiisan kara okane wo moraimasu.
A : From whom does your younger sister receive the money ?
B : …My younger sister receive money from her grandfather.
The focus is in ‘imouto’ who receive the money since we use ‘morau’ which means to receive. In the statement context, ‘imouto’ or my younger sister is the person who receive something.
My own opinion :
もらう and くれる in this article have different focus. The verb もらう is focusing on the person whom receive something from someone else. And the other one くれる is focusing on the one who do the work for the receiver or to help and do favor for the receiver stand point.
Beside all of the verbs which is used by the receiver stand point presented in the above sentence, くれるandもらう, we can also use a lot of other verbs as shown in the problem which is the combination of くれるandもらう and other verb. Below are all of the answers of all the questions based on the above pattern. We can see the full questions and problems in Minna Nihongo book chapter 7 practice B part 5 on page 60 :
Dare ni tegami wo kakimasuka ?.
… Karina-san ni kakimasu.
Who are you writing a letter to ?.
… I am writing to Karina.
Dare ni denwa wo kakemasuka ?
… Guputa-san ni kakemasu.
Who are you caling to ?
… I am calling Gupta.
Dare ni obentou wo moraimashita ?.
… Haha ni moraimashita.
From whom do you received the lunch box ?.
… I received from my mother.
Dare ni okane wo karimasuka ?.
… Yamada-san ni karimasu.
From whom do you borrow money ?.
… I borrow (it) from Yamada.