Japanese Minna no Nihongo Answer Sheet Chapter 6 Practice C Part 5 Page 53

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We will learn how to use and to choose past tense verb and present tense verb which is displayed in a form of question consists of several option’s answers. The article is discussing on how to answer the question which is given with an appropriate answer based on the question and several choice of answers which is already provided along with the question. First, we will discuss on the tense : Past Tense The first tense is the past tense which is actually a tense describing an action or event done in the past. The verb in this article is using a verb conjunction -shimashita to make it in to a past tense. It is a verb conjunction used in a formal situation. Pattern :

Kanji                      : 動詞                     +( -しました )

Hiragana              : どうし                  +( -しました )

Romaji                  : Doushi                +( -shimashita )

Meaning              : Verb                     +( -shimashita )

Example :

Kanji                      : 昨日郵便局で封筒に切手を張ります。

Hiragana              : きのうゆうびんきょくでふうとうにきってをはります。

Romaji                  : Kinou yuubinkyoku de fuutou ni kitte wo harimasu.

Meaning              : Yesterday I stick a stamp on the envelope at the post office.

The above example must be written in a past tense form since it has a past time marker kinou (昨日) which is translated as yesterday.

Present Tense

The second tense Is present tense. This tense form is used basically used to express a habitual action and also an action which is going to be executed in the future. The verb in this article uses a verb conjunction -shimasu as a present tense. So Japanese language doesn’t has any future verb form since it can uses the present tense form. The differentiation is generally depends on the time marker which is expressed in the sentence.

Pattern :

Kanji                      : 動詞                     +( -します )

Hiragana              : どうし                  +( -します )

Romaji                  : Doushi                +( -shimasu )

Meaning              : Verb                     +( -shimasu )

Example 1 ( Habitual Action )

Kanji                      : 毎週土曜日にプールで泳ぎます。

Hiragana              : まいしゅうどようびにプールでおよぎます。

Romaji                  : Mai shuu doyoubi ni pu-ru de oyogimasu.

Meaning               : Every week at Saturday (I) swim at the pool.

The time marker mai shuu (毎週 ) or every week is a time marker for a habitual action. In this pattern we use present tense form.

Example 2 ( Future Action )

Kanji                      : 明日母を空港で迎えに来ます。

Hiragana              : あしたははをくうこうでむかえにきます。

Romaji                  : Ashita haha wo kuukou de mukae ni kimasu.

Meaning              : Tomorrow (I) will go the airport in order to welcome mom.

The time marker ashita (明日 ) or tomorrow which is a time marker for a future action. In this pattern we use present tense form.

Below are all of the answers of all the questions based on the above pattern. The questions contains a question form with several answer’s option which can be chosen. We can see the full questions in Minna Nihongo book chapter 6 practice C part 4 page 52 :

1. Kanji               : きのうの晩 手紙を ( 書きます、書きました )。

Hiragana            : きのうのばん てがみを ( かきます、かきました )。

Romaji                : Kinou no ban tegami wo ( kakimasu, kakimashita ).

Meaning             : Yesterday night (I) wrote a letter.

The answer is ‘kakimashita’ (書きました) which means to wrote. It is the correct answer since it is a past tense which is signed with a past time marker ‘kinou no ban’ (きのうの晩) means yesterday night. The other option ‘kakimasu’ (書きます) means will write or is going to write depends on the context of the sentence.

2. Kanji :毎朝 新聞 を ( 読みますか、読みましたか )。


Hiragana            : まいあさ しんぶん を( よみますか、 よみましたか )。


Romaji              : Mai asa shinbun wo ( yomimasuka , yomimashitaka ).

… Iie, yomimasen.

Meaning           : Every morning do you read newspaper ?

No, (I) don’t read

The correct answer is ‘yomimasuka’ ( 読みますか ) which means read. It is a present form of the verb in an interrogative sentence which is the correct answer since the time marker is ‘mai asa’ (まいあさ ) which is a time marker for habitual action. The other option, ‘yomimashitaka’ (よみましたか) is a past form of the verb in an interrogative sentence.

3. Kanji : いっしょに 美実間へ( 行きませんでしたか、いきませんか )。

。。。ええ、( 行きましょう、行きません )。

Hiragana            : いっしょに びじゅつかん へ ( いきませんでしたか、 いきませんか )。

。。。ええ、( いきましょう、いきません )。

Romaji              : Isshoni bijutsukan e ( ikimasendeshitaka, ikimasenka ).

… ee, ( ikimashou, ikimasen ).

Meaning           : Would you like to go to the art museum together ?

… Yes, let’s go.

The above question is a form of offering, inviting or asking someone to do an activity together by using an interrogative question in a negative form which has been discussed in the previous article .  The correct answer is in the ‘ikimasenka’ answer’s option since it is actually being happened or currently happened.

4. Kanji : あした 大阪城公園で 花見を ( しました、します )。

Hiragana            : あした おおさかじょうこうえんで はなみを ( しあした、します )。

Romaji               : Ashita Oosaka jyou kouen de hanami wo ( shimashita, shimasu ).

Meaning           : Tomorrow (I) will watch sakura blooms in Oosaka palace’s garden.

The answer for the above question is ‘shimasu’ ( します )which means will do in the context of the sentence since it has a time marker ‘ashita’ ( あした ) which means tomorrow.

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